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# All Excel Worksheet Functions, with Links to Help Topics

## Excel offers a total of 466 worksheet functions in versions 2003 through 2013. Here's a complete list, with links to help topics for all of them.

 by Charley Kyd, MBAMicrosoft Excel MVP, 2005-2014 The Father of Spreadsheet Dashboard Reports

Also of Interest:

Note 1: If an ExcelUser link has "(begun)" after the function name, the topic isn't complete...and usually isn't worth reading.

Note 2: Example workbooks are available for most of the completed functions. You can download all available workbooks with those examples here, in one zip file. As I add more example workbooks to the zip file, I'll pass the word to everyone who's downloaded any examples or purchased any products.

Note 3: The Example workbooks are all "xlsm" workbooks. That is, they are macro workbooks for Office 2007 and after. This is because they all contain a User Defined Function (UDF) to display the formula for a specified cell.

 Function & Link to Microsoft Help Function & Link to ExcelUser Help & Downloads Description ABS ABS Returns the absolute value of a number ACCRINT Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest ACCRINTM Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity ACOS Returns the arccosine of a number ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number ACOT Returns the arccotangent of a number ACOTH Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number ADDRESS ADDRESS Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet AGGREGATE AGGREGATE Applies one of 19 aggregation functions to a list or table, optionally ignores hidden rows or errors, and returns the result. AMORDEGRC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient AMORLINC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period AND AND Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE ARABIC Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number AREAS Returns the number of areas in a reference ASC Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters ASIN Returns the arcsine of a number ASINH Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number ATAN Returns the arctangent of a number ATAN2 Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates ATANH Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number AVEDEV Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean AVERAGE AVERAGE Returns the average of its arguments AVERAGEA AVERAGEA Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values AVERAGEIF AVERAGEIF Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria AVERAGEIFS AVERAGEIFS Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. BAHTTEXT Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format BASE Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base) BESSELI Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) BESSELJ Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) BESSELK Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) BESSELY Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) BETA.DIST BETA.DIST Returns the beta cumulative distribution function BETA.INV BETA.INV (begun) Returns the inverse of the beta cumulative probability density function BETADIST Returns the beta cumulative distribution function BETAINV Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution BIN2DEC Converts a binary number to decimal BIN2HEX Converts a binary number to hexadecimal BIN2OCT Converts a binary number to octal BINOM.DIST BINOM.DIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability BINOM.DIST.RANGE Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution BINOM.INV BINOM.INV (begun) Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value BINOMDIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability BITAND Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers BITLSHIFT Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits BITOR Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers BITRSHIFT Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits BITXOR Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers CALL Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource CEILING CEILING Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance CEILING.MATH CEILING.MATH Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance CEILING.PRECISE CEILING.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. CELL Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell (This function is not available in Excel Web App.) CHAR CHAR Returns the character specified by the code number CHIDIST Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHIINV Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHISQ.DIST CHISQ.DIST (begun) Returns the cumulative beta probability density function CHISQ.DIST.RT Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHISQ.INV CHISQ.INV (begun) Returns the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.INV.RT Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHISQ.TEST Returns the test for independence CHITEST Returns the test for independence CHOOSE CHOOSE Chooses a value from a list of values CLEAN CLEAN Removes all nonprintable characters from text CODE CODE Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string COLUMN COLUMN Returns the column number of a reference COLUMNS COLUMNS Returns the number of columns in a reference COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects COMBINA Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items COMPLEX Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number CONCATENATE Joins several text items into one text item CONFIDENCE Returns the confidence interval for a population mean CONFIDENCE.NORM Returns the confidence interval for a population mean CONFIDENCE.T Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution CONVERT Converts a number from one measurement system to another CORREL Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets COS Returns the cosine of a number COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number COT Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number COTH Returns the cotangent of an angle COUNT COUNT Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments COUNTA COUNTA Counts how many values are in the list of arguments COUNTBLANK COUNTBLANK Counts the number of blank cells within a range COUNTIF COUNTIF Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria COUNTIFS COUNTIFS Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria COUPDAYBS Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date COUPDAYS Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date COUPDAYSNC Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date COUPNCD Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date COUPNUM Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date COUPPCD Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date COVAR Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations COVARIANCE.P Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations COVARIANCE.S Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets CRITBINOM Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value CSC Returns the cosecant of an angle CSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle CUBEKPIMEMBER Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization's performance. CUBEMEMBER Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. CUBERANKEDMEMBER Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students. CUBESET Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel. CUBESETCOUNT Returns the number of items in a set. CUBEVALUE Returns an aggregated value from a cube. CUMIPMT Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods CUMPRINC Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods DATE DATE Returns the serial number of a particular date DATEDIF Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. DATEVALUE DATEVALUE Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number DAVERAGE Returns the average of selected database entries DAY DAY Converts a serial number to a day of the month DAYS DAYS Returns the number of days between two dates DAYS360 DAYS360 (begun) Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year DB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method DBCS Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters DCOUNT Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database DCOUNTA Counts nonblank cells in a database DDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify DEC2BIN Converts a decimal number to binary DEC2HEX Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal DEC2OCT Converts a decimal number to octal DECIMAL Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number DEGREES Converts radians to degrees DELTA Tests whether two values are equal DEVSQ Returns the sum of squares of deviations DGET Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria DISC Returns the discount rate for a security DMAX Returns the maximum value from selected database entries DMIN Returns the minimum value from selected database entries DOLLAR Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format DOLLARDE Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number DOLLARFR Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction DPRODUCT Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database DSTDEV Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries DSTDEVP Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries DSUM Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria DURATION Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments DVAR Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries DVARP Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries EDATE EDATE Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date EFFECT Returns the effective annual interest rate ENCODEURL Returns a URL-encoded string EOMONTH EOMONTH (begun) Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months ERF Returns the error function ERF.PRECISE Returns the error function ERFC Returns the complementary error function ERFC.PRECISE Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity ERROR.TYPE Returns a number corresponding to an error type EUROCONVERT Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation). EVEN EVEN (begun) Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer EXACT Checks to see if two text values are identical EXP Returns e raised to the power of a given number EXPON.DIST Returns the exponential distribution EXPONDIST Returns the exponential distribution F.DIST Returns the F probability distribution F.DIST.RT Returns the (right-tailed) F probability distribution for two data sets. F.INV F.INV (begun) Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution F.INV.RT Returns the inverse of the (right-tailed) F probability distribution. F.TEST Returns the result of an F-test FACT Returns the factorial of a number FACTDOUBLE Returns the double factorial of a number FALSE FALSE (begun) Returns the logical value FALSE FDIST F.DIST (begun) Returns the F probability distribution FILTERXML Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath FIND FIND (begun) Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) FINDB Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) (double-byte) FINV Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution FISHER Returns the Fisher transformation FISHERINV Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation FIXED Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals FLOOR FLOOR Rounds a number down, toward zero FLOOR.MATH FLOOR.MATH (begun) Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance FLOOR.PRECISE FLOOR.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. FORECAST Returns a value along a linear trend FORMULATEXT Returns the formula at the given reference as text FREQUENCY FREQUENCY (begun) Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array FTEST Returns the result of an F-test (Deprecated) FV FV (begun) Returns the future value of an annuity FVSCHEDULE Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates GAMMA Returns the Gamma function value GAMMA.DIST GAMMA.DIST (begun) Returns the gamma distribution GAMMA.INV GAMMA.INV (begun) Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution GAMMADIST Returns the gamma distribution GAMMAINV Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution GAMMALN Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) GAMMALN.PRECISE Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) GAUSS Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution GCD Returns the greatest common divisor GEOMEAN Returns the geometric mean GESTEP Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value GETPIVOTDATA GETPIVOTDATA (begun) Returns data stored in a PivotTable report GROWTH GROWTH Returns values along an exponential trend HARMEAN Returns the harmonic mean HEX2BIN Converts a hexadecimal number to binary HEX2DEC Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal HEX2OCT Converts a hexadecimal number to octal HLOOKUP HLOOKUP (begun) Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell HOUR HOUR (begun) Converts a serial number to an hour HYPERLINK Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet HYPGEOM.DIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution HYPGEOMDIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution IF IF (begun) Specifies a logical test to perform IFERROR IFERROR (begun) Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula IFNA Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression IMABS Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number IMAGINARY Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number IMARGUMENT Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians IMCONJUGATE Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number IMCOS Returns the cosine of a complex number IMCOSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number IMCOT Returns the cotangent of a complex number IMCSC Returns the cosecant of a complex number IMCSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number IMDIV Returns the quotient of two complex numbers IMEXP Returns the exponential of a complex number IMLN Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number IMLOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number IMLOG2 Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number IMPOWER Returns a complex number raised to an integer power IMPRODUCT Returns the product of complex numbers IMREAL Returns the real coefficient of a complex number IMSEC Returns the secant of a complex number IMSECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number IMSIN Returns the sine of a complex number IMSINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number IMSQRT Returns the square root of a complex number IMSUB Returns the difference between two complex numbers IMSUM Returns the sum of complex numbers IMTAN Returns the tangent of a complex number INDEX INDEX Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array INDIRECT INDIRECT (begun) Returns a reference indicated by a text value INFO Returns information about the current operating environment (NOTEThis function is not available in Excel Web App.) INT INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer INTERCEPT Returns the intercept of the linear regression line INTRATE Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security IPMT IPMT (begun) Returns the interest payment for an annuity for a given period IRR IRR (begun) Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows ISBLANK Returns TRUE if the value is blank ISERR ISERR (begun) Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A ISERROR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value ISEVEN Returns TRUE if the number is even ISFORMULA Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula ISLOGICAL Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value ISNA ISNA (begun) Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value ISNONTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is not text ISNUMBER Returns TRUE if the value is a number ISO.CEILING ISO.CEILING (begun) Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance ISODD Returns TRUE if the number is odd ISOWEEKNUM ISOWEEKNUM (begun) Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date ISPMT Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an annuity ISREF Returns TRUE if the value is a reference ISTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is text JIS Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters KURT Returns the kurtosis of a data set LARGE LARGE (begun) Returns the k-th largest value in a data set LCM Returns the least common multiple LEFT LEFT (begun) Returns the leftmost characters from a text value LEFTB Returns the leftmost characters from a text value (double-byte) LEN LEN (begun) Returns the number of characters in a text string LENB Returns the number of characters in a text string (double-byte) LINEST LINEST Returns the parameters of a linear trend LN Returns the natural logarithm of a number LOG Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base LOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number LOGEST LOGEST Returns the parameters of an exponential trend LOGINV Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution LOGNORM.DIST LOGNORM.DIST (begun) Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution LOGNORM.INV LOGNORM.INV (begun) Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution LOGNORMDIST Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution LOOKUP LOOKUP (begun) Looks up values in a vector or array LOWER LOWER (begun) Converts text to lowercase MATCH MATCH Looks up values in a reference or array MAX MAX (begun) Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments MAXA Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of an array MDURATION Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100 MEDIAN MEDIAN Returns the median of the given numbers MID MID (begun) Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify MIDB Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify (double-byte) MIN MIN (begun) Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments MINA Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values MINUTE MINUTE (begun) Converts a serial number to a minute MINVERSE Returns the matrix inverse of an array MIRR MIRR (begun) Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates MMULT MMULT (begun) Returns the matrix product of two arrays MOD MOD (begun) Returns the remainder from division MODE MODE (begun) Returns the most common value in a data set MODE.MULT Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data MODE.SNGL MODE.SNGL (begun) Returns the most common value in a data set MONTH MONTH Converts a serial number to a month MROUND MROUND (begun) Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple MULTINOMIAL Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers MUNIT Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension N N (begun) Returns a value converted to a number NA NA (begun) Returns the error value #N/A NEGBINOM.DIST NEGBINOM.DIST (begun) Returns the negative binomial distribution NEGBINOMDIST Returns the negative binomial distribution NETWORKDAYS NETWORKDAYS (begun) Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates NETWORKDAYS.INTL NETWORKDAYS.INTL Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days NOMINAL Returns the annual nominal interest rate NORM.DIST NORM.DIST (begun) Returns the normal cumulative distribution NORM.INV NORM.INV (begun) Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution NORM.S.DIST NORM.S.DIST (begun) Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution NORM.S.INV NORM.S.INV  (begun) Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. NORMDIST Returns the normal cumulative distribution (Deprecated) NORMINV NORMINV (begun) Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution (Deprecated) NORMSDIST Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution (Deprecated) NORMSINV Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution (Deprecated) NOT NOT (begun) Reverses the logic of its argument NOW NOW (begun) Returns the serial number of the current date and time NPER NPER (begun) Returns the number of periods for an annuity NPV NPV (begun) Returns the net present value of an annuity based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate NUMBERVALUE Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner OCT2BIN Converts an octal number to binary OCT2DEC Converts an octal number to decimal OCT2HEX Converts an octal number to hexadecimal ODD ODD (begun) Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer ODDFPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period ODDFYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period ODDLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period ODDLYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period OFFSET OFFSET Returns a reference offset from a given reference OR OR (begun) Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE PDURATION Returns the number of periods required by an annuity to reach a specified value PEARSON Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient PERCENTILE PERCENTILE (begun) Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range PERCENTILE.EXC PERCENTILE.EXC (begun) Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0 to 1, exclusive PERCENTILE.INC PERCENTILE.INC (begun) Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0 to 1, inclusive. PERCENTRANK PERCENTRANK (begun) Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set PERCENTRANK.EXC PERCENTRANK.EXC (begun) Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set PERCENTRANK.INC PERCENTRANK.INC (begun) Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set PERMUT Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects PERMUTATIONA Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects PHI Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution PHONETIC Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string PI Returns the value of pi PMT PMT Returns the periodic payment for an annuity POISSON Returns the Poisson distribution POISSON.DIST Returns the Poisson distribution POWER Returns the result of a number raised to a power PPMT PPMT (begun) Returns the payment on the principal for an annuity for a given period PRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest PRICEDISC Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security PRICEMAT Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity PROB Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits (double-byte) PRODUCT PRODUCT (begun) Multiplies its arguments PROPER PROPER (begun) Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value PV PV (begun) Returns the present value of an annuity QUARTILE QUARTILE Returns the quartile of a data set QUARTILE.EXC QUARTILE.EXC Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive QUARTILE.INC QUARTILE.INC Returns the quartile of a data set QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division RADIANS Converts degrees to radians RAND RAND Returns a random number between 0 and 1 RANDBETWEEN RANDBETWEEN (begun) Returns a random number between the numbers you specify RANK RANK (begun) Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers RANK.AVG RANK.AVG (begun) Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers RANK.EQ RANK.EQ (begun) Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers RATE RATE (begun) Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity RECEIVED Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security REGISTER.ID Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered REPLACE REPLACE (begun) Replaces characters within text REPLACEB Replaces characters within text (double-byte) REPT Repeats text a given number of times RIGHT RIGHT (begun) Returns the rightmost characters from a text value RIGHTB Returns the rightmost characters from a text value (double-byte) ROMAN Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text ROUND ROUND Rounds a number to a specified number of digits ROUNDDOWN ROUNDDOWN Rounds a number down, toward zero ROUNDUP ROUNDUP Rounds a number up, away from zero ROW ROW Returns the row number of a reference ROWS ROWS Returns the number of rows in a reference RRI Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an annuity RSQ Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient RTD Retrieves real-time data from a program that supportsCOM automation SEARCH SEARCH (begun) Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive) SEARCHB Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive) (double-byte) SEC Returns the secant of an angle SECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle SECOND SECOND (begun) Converts a serial number to a second (None Known) SERIES (begun) Represents a data series in the active chart. This function is used only in charts; you cannot use it in worksheets. SERIESSUM Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula SHEET Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet SHEETS Returns the number of sheets in a reference SIGN SIGN (begun) Returns the sign of a number SIN Returns the sine of the given angle SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number SKEW Returns the skewness of a distribution SKEW.P Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population:  a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean SLN Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period SLOPE Returns the slope of the linear regression line SMALL SMALL (begun) Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set SQL.REQUEST Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming SQRT Returns a positive square root SQRTPI Returns the square root of (number * pi) STANDARDIZE Returns a normalized value STDEV STDEV Estimates standard deviation based on a sample STDEV.P STDEV.P Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population STDEV.S STDEV.S Estimates standard deviation based on a sample STDEVA Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values STDEVP STDEVP Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population STDEVPA Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values STEYX STEYX Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression SUBSTITUTE SUBSTITUTE (begun) Substitutes new text for old text in a text string SUBTOTAL SUBTOTAL Returns a subtotal of the visible (unfiltered) items in a list or database SUM SUM (begun) Adds its arguments SUMIF SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria SUMIFS SUMIFS Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria SUMPRODUCT SUMPRODUCT Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components SUMSQ Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments SUMX2MY2 Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays SUMX2PY2 Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays SUMXMY2 Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays SYD Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period T T (begun) Converts its arguments to text T.DIST T.DIST (begun) Returns the Student's left-tailed t-distribution. T.DIST.2T T.DIST.2T (begun) Returns the cumulative, two-tailed Student's t-distribution. T.DIST.RT Returns the cumulative, right-tailed Student's t-distribution. T.INV T.INV (begun) Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom T.INV.2T T.INV.2T (begun) Returns the two-tailed inverse of the Student's t-distribution. T.TEST Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test TAN Returns the tangent of a number TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number TBILLEQ Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill TBILLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill TBILLYIELD Returns the yield for a Treasury bill TDIST Returns the Student's t-distribution TEXT TEXT (begun) Formats a number and converts it to text TIME TIME (begun) Returns the serial number of a particular time TIMEVALUE TIMEVALUE (begun) Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number TINV Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution TODAY TODAY (begun) Returns the serial number of today's date TRANSPOSE TRANSPOSE (begun) Returns the transpose of an array TREND TREND Returns values along a linear trend TRIM TRIM (begun) Removes spaces from text TRIMMEAN TRIMMEAN (begun) Returns the mean of the interior of a data set TRUE TRUE (begun) Returns the logical value TRUE TRUNC TRUNC Truncates a number to an integer TTEST Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test TYPE Returns a number indicating the data type of a value UNICHAR UNICHAR Returns the Unicode character that is referenced by the given numeric value UNICODE UNICODE Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text UPPER UPPER (begun) Converts text to uppercase VALUE VALUE (begun) Converts a text argument to a number VAR Estimates variance based on a sample VAR.P VAR.P Calculates variance based on the entire population VAR.S VAR.S Estimates variance based on a sample VARA Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values VARP Calculates variance based on the entire population VARPA Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values VDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method VLOOKUP VLOOKUP Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell WEBSERVICE Returns data from a web service. WEEKDAY WEEKDAY (begun) Converts a date serial number to a day of the week WEEKNUM WEEKNUM (begun) Converts a date serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year WEIBULL Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values WEIBULL.DIST Returns the Weibull distribution WORKDAY WORKDAY (begun) Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays WORKDAY.INTL WORKDAY.INTL (begun) Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days, and which are holidays XIRR Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic XNPV Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic XOR Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments YEAR YEAR Converts a serial number to a year YEARFRAC YEARFRAC (begun) Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date YEN Converts a number to text, using the ¥ (yen) currency format, with the number rounded to a specified place. (Mac 2011.) YIELD Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest YIELDDISC Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill YIELDMAT Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity Z.TEST Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test ZTEST Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test   ExcelUser, Inc. Copyright © 2004 - 2017 by Charles W. Kyd, all rights reserved. Content, graphics, and HTML code are protected by US and International Copyright Laws, and may not be copied, reprinted, published, translated, hosted, or otherwise distributed by any means without explicit permission. Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Earnings Policy. Ref:  900 476