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Description 
ABS 
ABS 
Returns the absolute value of a number 
ACCRINT 

Returns the accrued interest for a security that
pays periodic interest 
ACCRINTM 

Returns the accrued interest for a security that
pays interest at maturity 
ACOS 

Returns the arccosine of a number 
ACOSH 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number 
ACOT 

Returns the arccotangent of a number 
ACOTH 

Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number 
ADDRESS 
ADDRESS 
Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a
worksheet 
AGGREGATE 
AGGREGATE 
Applies one of 19 aggregation
functions to a list or table, optionally ignores hidden
rows or errors, and returns the result. 
AMORDEGRC 

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period
by using a depreciation coefficient 
AMORLINC 

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period 
AND 
AND 
Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE 
ARABIC 

Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number 
AREAS 

Returns the number of areas in a reference 
ASC 

Changes fullwidth (doublebyte) English letters or
katakana within a character string to halfwidth
(singlebyte) characters 
ASIN 

Returns the arcsine of a number 
ASINH 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number 
ATAN 

Returns the arctangent of a number 
ATAN2 

Returns the arctangent from x and ycoordinates 
ATANH 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number 
AVEDEV 

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of
data points from their mean 
AVERAGE 
AVERAGE 
Returns the average of its arguments 
AVERAGEA 
AVERAGEA 
Returns the average of its arguments, including
numbers, text, and logical values 
AVERAGEIF 
AVERAGEIF 
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the
cells in a range that meet a given criteria 
AVERAGEIFS 
AVERAGEIFS 
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells
that meet multiple criteria. 
BAHTTEXT 

Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht)
currency format 
BASE 

Converts a number into a text representation with
the given radix (base) 
BESSELI 

Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) 
BESSELJ 

Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) 
BESSELK 

Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) 
BESSELY 

Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) 
BETA.DIST 
BETA.DIST 
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 
BETA.INV 
BETA.INV (begun) 
Returns the inverse of the beta
cumulative probability density function 
BETADIST 

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 
BETAINV 

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution
function for a specified beta distribution 
BIN2DEC 

Converts a binary number to decimal 
BIN2HEX 

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal 
BIN2OCT 

Converts a binary number to octal 
BINOM.DIST 
BINOM.DIST 
Returns the individual term binomial distribution
probability 
BINOM.DIST.RANGE 

Returns the probability of a trial result using a
binomial distribution 
BINOM.INV 
BINOM.INV (begun) 
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative
binomial distribution is less than or equal to a
criterion value 
BINOMDIST 

Returns the individual term binomial distribution
probability 
BITAND 

Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers 
BITLSHIFT 

Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount
bits 
BITOR 

Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers 
BITRSHIFT 

Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount
bits 
BITXOR 

Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers 
CALL 

Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code
resource 
CEILING 
CEILING 
Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the
nearest multiple of significance 
CEILING.MATH 
CEILING.MATH 
Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the
nearest multiple of significance 
CEILING.PRECISE 
CEILING.PRECISE 
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the
nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign
of the number, the number is rounded up. 
CELL 

Returns information about the formatting, location,
or contents of a cell (This function is not
available in Excel Web App.) 
CHAR 
CHAR 
Returns the character specified by the code number 
CHIDIST 

Returns the onetailed probability of the
chisquared distribution 
CHIINV 

Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of
the chisquared distribution 
CHISQ.DIST 
CHISQ.DIST
(begun) 
Returns the cumulative beta probability density
function 
CHISQ.DIST.RT 

Returns the onetailed probability of the
chisquared distribution 
CHISQ.INV 
CHISQ.INV (begun) 
Returns the inverse of the
lefttailed probability of the chisquared distribution. 
CHISQ.INV.RT 

Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of
the chisquared distribution 
CHISQ.TEST 

Returns the test for independence 
CHITEST 

Returns the test for independence 
CHOOSE 
CHOOSE 
Chooses a value from a list of values 
CLEAN 
CLEAN 
Removes all nonprintable characters from text 
CODE 
CODE 
Returns a numeric code for the first character in a
text string 
COLUMN 
COLUMN 
Returns the column number of a reference 
COLUMNS 
COLUMNS 
Returns the number of columns in a reference 
COMBIN 

Returns the number of combinations for a given
number of objects 
COMBINA 

Returns the number of combinations with repetitions
for a given number of items 
COMPLEX 

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a
complex number 
CONCATENATE 

Joins several text items into one text item 
CONFIDENCE 

Returns the confidence interval for a population
mean 
CONFIDENCE.NORM 

Returns the confidence interval for a population
mean 
CONFIDENCE.T 

Returns the confidence interval for a population
mean, using a Student's t distribution 
CONVERT 

Converts a number from one measurement system to
another 
CORREL 

Returns the correlation coefficient between two data
sets 
COS 

Returns the cosine of a number 
COSH 

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 
COT 

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 
COTH 

Returns the cotangent of an angle 
COUNT 
COUNT 
Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments 
COUNTA 
COUNTA 
Counts how many values are in the list of arguments 
COUNTBLANK 
COUNTBLANK 
Counts the number of blank cells within a range 
COUNTIF 
COUNTIF 
Counts the number of cells within a range that meet
the given criteria 
COUNTIFS 
COUNTIFS 
Counts the number of cells within a range that meet
multiple criteria 
COUPDAYBS 

Returns the number of days from the beginning of the
coupon period to the settlement date 
COUPDAYS 

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that
contains the settlement date 
COUPDAYSNC 

Returns the number of days from the settlement date
to the next coupon date 
COUPNCD 

Returns the next coupon date after the settlement
date 
COUPNUM 

Returns the number of coupons payable between the
settlement date and maturity date 
COUPPCD 

Returns the previous coupon date before the
settlement date 
COVAR 

Returns covariance, the average of the products of
paired deviations 
COVARIANCE.P 

Returns covariance, the average of the products of
paired deviations 
COVARIANCE.S 

Returns the sample covariance, the average of the
products deviations for each data point pair in two data
sets 
CRITBINOM 

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative
binomial distribution is less than or equal to a
criterion value 
CSC 

Returns the cosecant of an angle 
CSCH 

Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle 
CUBEKPIMEMBER 

Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name,
property, and measure, and displays the name and
property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable
measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly
employee turnover, used to monitor an organization's
performance. 
CUBEMEMBER 

Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use
to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. 
CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY 

Returns the value of a member property in the cube.
Use to validate that a member name exists within the
cube and to return the specified property for this
member. 
CUBERANKEDMEMBER 

Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to
return one or more elements in a set, such as the top
sales performer or top 10 students. 
CUBESET 

Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by
sending a set expression to the cube on the server,
which creates the set, and then returns that set to
Microsoft Office Excel. 
CUBESETCOUNT 

Returns the number of items in a set. 
CUBEVALUE 

Returns an aggregated value from a cube. 
CUMIPMT 

Returns the cumulative interest paid between two
periods 
CUMPRINC 

Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan
between two periods 
DATE 
DATE 
Returns the serial number of a particular date 
DATEDIF 

Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. 
DATEVALUE 
DATEVALUE 
Converts a date in the form of text to a serial
number 
DAVERAGE 

Returns the average of selected database entries 
DAY 
DAY 
Converts a serial number to a day of the month 
DAYS 
DAYS 
Returns the number of days between two dates 
DAYS360 
DAYS360 (begun) 
Calculates the number of days between two dates
based on a 360day year 
DB 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified
period by using the fixeddeclining balance method 
DBCS 

Changes halfwidth (singlebyte) English letters or
katakana within a character string to fullwidth
(doublebyte) characters 
DCOUNT 

Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database 
DCOUNTA 

Counts nonblank cells in a database 
DDB 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified
period by using the doubledeclining balance method or
some other method that you specify 
DEC2BIN 

Converts a decimal number to binary 
DEC2HEX 

Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal 
DEC2OCT 

Converts a decimal number to octal 
DECIMAL 

Converts a text representation of a number in a
given base into a decimal number 
DEGREES 

Converts radians to degrees 
DELTA 

Tests whether two values are equal 
DEVSQ 

Returns the sum of squares of deviations 
DGET 

Extracts from a database a single record that
matches the specified criteria 
DISC 

Returns the discount rate for a security 
DMAX 

Returns the maximum value from selected database
entries 
DMIN 

Returns the minimum value from selected database
entries 
DOLLAR 

Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar)
currency format 
DOLLARDE 

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction,
into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number 
DOLLARFR 

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal
number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction 
DPRODUCT 

Multiplies the values in a particular field of
records that match the criteria in a database 
DSTDEV 

Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample
of selected database entries 
DSTDEVP 

Calculates the standard deviation based on the
entire population of selected database entries 
DSUM 

Adds the numbers in the field column of records in
the database that match the criteria 
DURATION 

Returns the annual duration of a security with
periodic interest payments 
DVAR 

Estimates variance based on a sample from selected
database entries 
DVARP 

Calculates variance based on the entire population
of selected database entries 
EDATE 
EDATE 
Returns the serial number of the date that is the
indicated number of months before or after the start
date 
EFFECT 

Returns the effective annual interest rate 
ENCODEURL 

Returns a URLencoded string 
EOMONTH 
EOMONTH (begun) 
Returns the serial number of the last day of the
month before or after a specified number of months 
ERF 

Returns the error function 
ERF.PRECISE 

Returns the error function 
ERFC 

Returns the complementary error function 
ERFC.PRECISE 

Returns the complementary ERF function integrated
between x and infinity 
ERROR.TYPE 

Returns a number corresponding to an error type 
EUROCONVERT 

Converts a number to euros, converts a number from
euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number
from one euro member currency to another by using the
euro as an intermediary (triangulation). 
EVEN 
EVEN (begun) 
Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer 
EXACT 

Checks to see if two text values are identical 
EXP 

Returns e raised to the power of a given number 
EXPON.DIST 

Returns the exponential distribution 
EXPONDIST 

Returns the exponential distribution 
F.DIST 

Returns the F probability distribution 
F.DIST.RT 

Returns the (righttailed) F
probability distribution for two data sets. 
F.INV 
F.INV (begun) 
Returns the inverse of the F probability
distribution 
F.INV.RT 

Returns the inverse of the
(righttailed) F probability distribution. 
F.TEST 

Returns the result of an Ftest 
FACT 

Returns the factorial of a number 
FACTDOUBLE 

Returns the double factorial of a number 
FALSE 
FALSE (begun) 
Returns the logical value FALSE 
FDIST 
F.DIST
(begun) 
Returns the F probability distribution 
FILTERXML 

Returns specific data from the XML content by using
the specified XPath 
FIND 
FIND (begun) 
Finds one text value within another (casesensitive) 
FINDB 

Finds one text value within another (casesensitive)
(doublebyte) 
FINV 

Returns the inverse of the F probability
distribution 
FISHER 

Returns the Fisher transformation 
FISHERINV 

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation 
FIXED 

Formats a number as text with a fixed number of
decimals 
FLOOR 
FLOOR 
Rounds a number down, toward zero 
FLOOR.MATH 
FLOOR.MATH (begun) 
Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to
the nearest multiple of significance 
FLOOR.PRECISE 
FLOOR.PRECISE 
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the
nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign
of the number, the number is rounded up. 
FORECAST 

Returns a value along a linear trend 
FORMULATEXT 

Returns the formula at the given reference as text 
FREQUENCY 
FREQUENCY (begun) 
Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array 
FTEST 

Returns the result of an Ftest (Deprecated) 
FV 
FV (begun) 
Returns the future value of an
annuity 
FVSCHEDULE 

Returns the future value of an initial principal
after applying a series of compound interest rates 
GAMMA 

Returns the Gamma function value 
GAMMA.DIST 
GAMMA.DIST
(begun) 
Returns the gamma distribution 
GAMMA.INV 
GAMMA.INV (begun) 
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative
distribution 
GAMMADIST 

Returns the gamma distribution 
GAMMAINV 

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative
distribution 
GAMMALN 

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function,
Γ(x) 
GAMMALN.PRECISE 

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function,
Γ(x) 
GAUSS 

Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative
distribution 
GCD 

Returns the greatest common divisor 
GEOMEAN 

Returns the geometric mean 
GESTEP 

Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold
value 
GETPIVOTDATA 
GETPIVOTDATA (begun) 
Returns data stored in a PivotTable report 
GROWTH 
GROWTH 
Returns values along an exponential trend 
HARMEAN 

Returns the harmonic mean 
HEX2BIN 

Converts a hexadecimal number to binary 
HEX2DEC 

Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal 
HEX2OCT 

Converts a hexadecimal number to octal 
HLOOKUP 
HLOOKUP (begun) 
Looks in the top row of an array and returns the
value of the indicated cell 
HOUR 
HOUR (begun) 
Converts a serial number to an hour 
HYPERLINK 

Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document
stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet 
HYPGEOM.DIST 

Returns the hypergeometric distribution 
HYPGEOMDIST 

Returns the hypergeometric distribution 
IF 
IF (begun) 
Specifies a logical test to perform 
IFERROR 
IFERROR (begun) 
Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates
to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the
formula 
IFNA 

Returns the value you specify if the expression
resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the
expression 
IMABS 

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex
number 
IMAGINARY 

Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex
number 
IMARGUMENT 

Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in
radians 
IMCONJUGATE 

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number 
IMCOS 

Returns the cosine of a complex number 
IMCOSH 

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number 
IMCOT 

Returns the cotangent of a complex number 
IMCSC 

Returns the cosecant of a complex number 
IMCSCH 

Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number 
IMDIV 

Returns the quotient of two complex numbers 
IMEXP 

Returns the exponential of a complex number 
IMLN 

Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG10 

Returns the base10 logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG2 

Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number 
IMPOWER 

Returns a complex number raised to an integer power 
IMPRODUCT 

Returns the product of complex numbers 
IMREAL 

Returns the real coefficient of a complex number 
IMSEC 

Returns the secant of a complex number 
IMSECH 

Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number 
IMSIN 

Returns the sine of a complex number 
IMSINH 

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number 
IMSQRT 

Returns the square root of a complex number 
IMSUB 

Returns the difference between two complex numbers 
IMSUM 

Returns the sum of complex numbers 
IMTAN 

Returns the tangent of a complex number 
INDEX 
INDEX 
Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or
array 
INDIRECT 
INDIRECT (begun) 
Returns a reference indicated by a text value 
INFO 

Returns information about the current operating
environment (NOTEThis function is not available in Excel
Web App.) 
INT 
INT 
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer 
INTERCEPT 

Returns the intercept of the linear regression line 
INTRATE 

Returns the interest rate for a fully invested
security 
IPMT 
IPMT (begun) 
Returns the interest payment for an
annuity for a
given period 
IRR 
IRR (begun) 
Returns the internal rate of return for a series of
cash flows 
ISBLANK 

Returns TRUE if the value is blank 
ISERR 
ISERR (begun) 
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except
#N/A 
ISERROR 

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value 
ISEVEN 

Returns TRUE if the number is even 
ISFORMULA 

Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that
contains a formula 
ISLOGICAL 

Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value 
ISNA 
ISNA (begun) 
Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value 
ISNONTEXT 

Returns TRUE if the value is not text 
ISNUMBER 

Returns TRUE if the value is a number 
ISO.CEILING 
ISO.CEILING (begun) 
Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest
integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 
ISODD 

Returns TRUE if the number is odd 
ISOWEEKNUM 
ISOWEEKNUM (begun) 
Returns the number of the ISO week number of the
year for a given date 
ISPMT 

Calculates the interest paid
during a specific period of an annuity 
ISREF 

Returns TRUE if the value is a reference 
ISTEXT 

Returns TRUE if the value is text 
JIS 

Changes halfwidth (singlebyte) English letters or
katakana within a character string to fullwidth
(doublebyte) characters 
KURT 

Returns the kurtosis of a data set 
LARGE 
LARGE (begun) 
Returns the kth largest value in a data set 
LCM 

Returns the least common multiple 
LEFT 
LEFT (begun) 
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value 
LEFTB 

Returns the leftmost characters from a text value
(doublebyte) 
LEN 
LEN (begun) 
Returns the number of characters in a text string 
LENB 

Returns the number of characters in a text string
(doublebyte) 
LINEST 
LINEST 
Returns the parameters of a linear trend 
LN 

Returns the natural logarithm of a number 
LOG 

Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified
base 
LOG10 

Returns the base10 logarithm of a number 
LOGEST 
LOGEST 
Returns the parameters of an exponential trend 
LOGINV 

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative
distribution 
LOGNORM.DIST 
LOGNORM.DIST
(begun) 
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 
LOGNORM.INV 
LOGNORM.INV (begun) 
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative
distribution 
LOGNORMDIST 

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 
LOOKUP 
LOOKUP (begun) 
Looks up values in a vector or array 
LOWER 
LOWER (begun) 
Converts text to lowercase 
MATCH 
MATCH 
Looks up values in a reference or array 
MAX 
MAX (begun) 
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments 
MAXA 

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments,
including numbers, text, and logical values 
MDETERM 

Returns the matrix determinant of an array 
MDURATION 

Returns the Macauley modified duration for a
security with an assumed par value of $100 
MEDIAN 
MEDIAN 
Returns the median of the given numbers 
MID 
MID (begun) 
Returns a specific number of characters from a text
string starting at the position you specify 
MIDB 

Returns a specific number of characters from a text
string starting at the position you specify
(doublebyte) 
MIN 
MIN (begun) 
Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments 
MINA 

Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments,
including numbers, text, and logical values 
MINUTE 
MINUTE (begun) 
Converts a serial number to a minute 
MINVERSE 

Returns the matrix inverse of an array 
MIRR 
MIRR (begun) 
Returns the internal rate of return where positive
and negative cash flows are financed at different rates 
MMULT 
MMULT (begun) 
Returns the matrix product of two arrays 
MOD 
MOD (begun) 
Returns the remainder from division 
MODE 
MODE (begun) 
Returns the most common value in a data set 
MODE.MULT 

Returns a vertical array of the most frequently
occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of
data 
MODE.SNGL 
MODE.SNGL (begun) 
Returns the most common value in a data set 
MONTH 
MONTH 
Converts a serial number to a month 
MROUND 
MROUND (begun) 
Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple 
MULTINOMIAL 

Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers 
MUNIT 

Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension 
N 
N (begun) 
Returns a value converted to a number 
NA 
NA (begun) 
Returns the error value #N/A 
NEGBINOM.DIST 
NEGBINOM.DIST
(begun) 
Returns the negative binomial distribution 
NEGBINOMDIST 

Returns the negative binomial distribution 
NETWORKDAYS 
NETWORKDAYS (begun) 
Returns the number of whole workdays between two
dates 
NETWORKDAYS.INTL 
NETWORKDAYS.INTL 
Returns the number of whole workdays between two
dates using parameters to indicate which and how many
days are weekend days 
NOMINAL 

Returns the annual nominal interest rate 
NORM.DIST 
NORM.DIST (begun) 
Returns the normal cumulative distribution 
NORM.INV 
NORM.INV (begun) 
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative
distribution 
NORM.S.DIST 
NORM.S.DIST
(begun) 
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution 
NORM.S.INV 
NORM.S.INV
(begun) 
Returns the inverse of the standard normal
cumulative distribution. 
NORMDIST 

Returns the normal cumulative distribution
(Deprecated) 
NORMINV 
NORMINV (begun) 
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative
distribution (Deprecated) 
NORMSDIST 

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution
(Deprecated) 
NORMSINV 

Returns the inverse of the standard normal
cumulative distribution (Deprecated) 
NOT 
NOT (begun) 
Reverses the logic of its argument 
NOW 
NOW (begun) 
Returns the serial number of the current date and
time 
NPER 
NPER (begun) 
Returns the number of periods
for an annuity 
NPV 
NPV (begun) 
Returns the net present value of an
annuity based
on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate 
NUMBERVALUE 

Converts text to number in a localeindependent
manner 
OCT2BIN 

Converts an octal number to binary 
OCT2DEC 

Converts an octal number to decimal 
OCT2HEX 

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal 
ODD 
ODD (begun) 
Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer 
ODDFPRICE 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security
with an odd first period 
ODDFYIELD 

Returns the yield of a security with an odd first
period 
ODDLPRICE 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security
with an odd last period 
ODDLYIELD 

Returns the yield of a security with an odd last
period 
OFFSET 
OFFSET 
Returns a reference offset from a given reference 
OR 
OR (begun) 
Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE 
PDURATION 

Returns the number of periods required by an
annuity to reach a specified value 
PEARSON 

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation
coefficient 
PERCENTILE 
PERCENTILE (begun) 
Returns the kth percentile of values in a range 
PERCENTILE.EXC 
PERCENTILE.EXC
(begun) 
Returns the kth percentile of values in a range,
where k is in the range 0 to 1, exclusive 
PERCENTILE.INC 
PERCENTILE.INC
(begun) 
Returns the kth percentile of
values in a range, where k is in the range 0 to 1,
inclusive. 
PERCENTRANK 
PERCENTRANK (begun) 
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 
PERCENTRANK.EXC 
PERCENTRANK.EXC
(begun) 
Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a
percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set 
PERCENTRANK.INC 
PERCENTRANK.INC
(begun) 
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 
PERMUT 

Returns the number of permutations for a given
number of objects 
PERMUTATIONA 

Returns the number of permutations for a given
number of objects (with repetitions) that can be
selected from the total objects 
PHI 

Returns the value of the density function for a
standard normal distribution 
PHONETIC 

Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a
text string 
PI 

Returns the value of pi 
PMT 
PMT 
Returns the periodic payment for an annuity 
POISSON 

Returns the Poisson distribution 
POISSON.DIST 

Returns the Poisson distribution 
POWER 

Returns the result of a number raised to a power 
PPMT 
PPMT (begun) 
Returns the payment on the principal for an
annuity for a given period 
PRICE 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security
that pays periodic interest 
PRICEDISC 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a
discounted security 
PRICEMAT 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security
that pays interest at maturity 
PROB 

Returns the probability that values in a range are
between two limits (doublebyte) 
PRODUCT 
PRODUCT (begun) 
Multiplies its arguments 
PROPER 
PROPER (begun) 
Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text
value 
PV 
PV (begun) 
Returns the present value of an
annuity 
QUARTILE 
QUARTILE 
Returns the quartile of a data set 
QUARTILE.EXC 
QUARTILE.EXC 
Returns the quartile of the data set, based on
percentile values from 0..1, exclusive 
QUARTILE.INC 
QUARTILE.INC 
Returns the quartile of a data set 
QUOTIENT 

Returns the integer portion of a division 
RADIANS 

Converts degrees to radians 
RAND 
RAND 
Returns a random number between 0 and 1 
RANDBETWEEN 
RANDBETWEEN (begun) 
Returns a random number between the numbers you
specify 
RANK 
RANK (begun) 
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 
RANK.AVG 
RANK.AVG (begun) 
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 
RANK.EQ 
RANK.EQ (begun) 
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 
RATE 
RATE (begun) 
Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity 
RECEIVED 

Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully
invested security 
REGISTER.ID 

Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic
link library (DLL) or code resource that has been
previously registered 
REPLACE 
REPLACE (begun) 
Replaces characters within text 
REPLACEB 

Replaces characters within text (doublebyte) 
REPT 

Repeats text a given number of times 
RIGHT 
RIGHT (begun) 
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value 
RIGHTB 

Returns the rightmost characters from a text value
(doublebyte) 
ROMAN 

Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text 
ROUND 
ROUND 
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits 
ROUNDDOWN 
ROUNDDOWN 
Rounds a number down, toward zero 
ROUNDUP 
ROUNDUP 
Rounds a number up, away from zero 
ROW 
ROW 
Returns the row number of a reference 
ROWS 
ROWS 
Returns the number of rows in a reference 
RRI 

Returns an equivalent interest
rate for the growth of an annuity 
RSQ 

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment
correlation coefficient 
RTD 

Retrieves realtime data from a program that
supportsCOM automation 
SEARCH 
SEARCH (begun) 
Finds one text value within another (not
casesensitive) 
SEARCHB 

Finds one text value within another (not
casesensitive) (doublebyte) 
SEC 

Returns the secant of an angle 
SECH 

Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle 
SECOND 
SECOND (begun) 
Converts a serial number to a second 
(None Known)

SERIES (begun) 
Represents a data series in the
active chart. This function is used only in charts; you
cannot use it in worksheets. 
SERIESSUM 

Returns the sum of a power series based on the
formula 
SHEET 

Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet 
SHEETS 

Returns the number of sheets in a reference 
SIGN 
SIGN (begun) 
Returns the sign of a number 
SIN 

Returns the sine of the given angle 
SINH 

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number 
SKEW 

Returns the skewness of a distribution 
SKEW.P 

Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a
population: a
characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a
distribution around its mean 
SLN 

Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset
for one period 
SLOPE 

Returns the slope of the linear regression line 
SMALL 
SMALL (begun) 
Returns the kth smallest value in a data set 
SQL.REQUEST 

Connects with an external data source and runs a
query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an
array without the need for macro programming 
SQRT 

Returns a positive square root 
SQRTPI 

Returns the square root of (number * pi) 
STANDARDIZE 

Returns a normalized value 
STDEV 
STDEV 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 
STDEV.P 
STDEV.P 
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire
population 
STDEV.S 
STDEV.S 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 
STDEVA 

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample,
including numbers, text, and logical values 
STDEVP 
STDEVP 
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire
population 
STDEVPA 

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire
population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
STEYX 
STEYX 
Returns the standard error of the predicted yvalue
for each x in the regression 
SUBSTITUTE 
SUBSTITUTE (begun) 
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string 
SUBTOTAL 
SUBTOTAL 
Returns a subtotal of the
visible (unfiltered) items in a list or database 
SUM 
SUM (begun) 
Adds its arguments 
SUMIF 
SUMIF 
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria 
SUMIFS 
SUMIFS 
Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple
criteria 
SUMPRODUCT 
SUMPRODUCT 
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding
array components 
SUMSQ 

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments 
SUMX2MY2 

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of
corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMX2PY2 

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of
corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMXMY2 

Returns the sum of squares of differences of
corresponding values in two arrays 
SYD 

Returns the sumofyears' digits depreciation of an
asset for a specified period 
T 
T (begun) 
Converts its arguments to text 
T.DIST 
T.DIST
(begun) 
Returns the Student's
lefttailed tdistribution. 
T.DIST.2T 
T.DIST.2T
(begun) 
Returns the cumulative, twotailed
Student's tdistribution. 
T.DIST.RT 

Returns the cumulative, righttailed
Student's tdistribution. 
T.INV 
T.INV (begun) 
Returns the tvalue of the Student's tdistribution
as a function of the probability and the degrees of
freedom 
T.INV.2T 
T.INV.2T (begun) 
Returns the twotailed inverse
of the Student's tdistribution. 
T.TEST 

Returns the probability associated with a Student's
ttest 
TAN 

Returns the tangent of a number 
TANH 

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number 
TBILLEQ 

Returns the bondequivalent yield for a Treasury
bill 
TBILLPRICE 

Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury
bill 
TBILLYIELD 

Returns the yield for a Treasury bill 
TDIST 

Returns the Student's tdistribution 
TEXT 
TEXT (begun) 
Formats a number and converts it to text 
TIME 
TIME (begun) 
Returns the serial number of a particular time 
TIMEVALUE 
TIMEVALUE (begun) 
Converts a time in the form of text to a serial
number 
TINV 

Returns the inverse of the Student's tdistribution 
TODAY 
TODAY (begun) 
Returns the serial number of today's date 
TRANSPOSE 
TRANSPOSE (begun) 
Returns the transpose of an array 
TREND 
TREND 
Returns values along a linear trend 
TRIM 
TRIM (begun) 
Removes spaces from text 
TRIMMEAN 
TRIMMEAN (begun) 
Returns the mean of the interior of a data set 
TRUE 
TRUE (begun) 
Returns the logical value TRUE 
TRUNC 
TRUNC 
Truncates a number to an integer 
TTEST 

Returns the probability associated with a Student's
ttest 
TYPE 

Returns a number indicating the data type of a value 
UNICHAR 
UNICHAR 
Returns the Unicode character that is referenced by
the given numeric value 
UNICODE 
UNICODE 
Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to
the first character of the text 
UPPER 
UPPER (begun) 
Converts text to uppercase 
VALUE 
VALUE (begun) 
Converts a text argument to a number 
VAR 

Estimates variance based on a sample 
VAR.P 
VAR.P 
Calculates variance based on the entire population 
VAR.S 
VAR.S 
Estimates variance based on a sample 
VARA 

Estimates variance based on a sample, including
numbers, text, and logical values 
VARP 

Calculates variance based on the entire population 
VARPA 

Calculates variance based on the entire population,
including numbers, text, and logical values 
VDB 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified
or partial period by using a declining balance method 
VLOOKUP 
VLOOKUP 
Looks in the first column of an array and moves
across the row to return the value of a cell 
WEBSERVICE 

Returns data from a web service. 
WEEKDAY 
WEEKDAY (begun) 
Converts a date serial number to a day of the week 
WEEKNUM 
WEEKNUM (begun) 
Converts a date serial number to a number representing
where the week falls numerically with a year 
WEIBULL 

Calculates variance based on the entire population,
including numbers, text, and logical values 
WEIBULL.DIST 

Returns the Weibull distribution 
WORKDAY 
WORKDAY (begun) 
Returns the serial number of the date before or
after a specified number of workdays 
WORKDAY.INTL 
WORKDAY.INTL (begun) 
Returns the serial number of the date before or
after a specified number of workdays using parameters to
indicate which and how many days are weekend days, and
which are holidays 
XIRR 

Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule
of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 
XNPV 

Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash
flows that is not necessarily periodic 
XOR 

Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments 
YEAR 
YEAR 
Converts a serial number to a year 
YEARFRAC 
YEARFRAC (begun) 
Returns the year fraction representing the number of
whole days between start_date and end_date 
YEN 

Converts a number to text, using the ¥ (yen) currency format, with the number rounded to a specified place.
(Mac 2011.) 
YIELD 

Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic
interest 
YIELDDISC 

Returns the annual yield for a discounted security;
for example, a Treasury bill 
YIELDMAT 

Returns the annual yield of a security that pays
interest at maturity 
Z.TEST 

Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 
ZTEST 

Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 